This is a fascinating read, especially as it parallels my own issues with religion. I've always referred to it as "absolutism", but in this draft analysis they call it "hierarchical" and "nonhierarchical":
For those who believe that reality is hierarchical, if two things are different that usually implies that one is better than the other. Likewise, for those who see reality as nonhierarchical, differences are likely surface and meaningless distinctions and probably distractions.
They're not finished with the research yet, but this explains SO MUCH. Now the question is, what do we do about it? Or can two such diametrically opposed views ever see eye-to-eye?